Basically, the question is simply: ‘Is Am Yisrael indigenous to Eretz Yisrael?’
The answer, though, is not so simple. The answer is neither yes nor no, but rather (c) none of the above AND (d) all of the above.
Am Yisrael was not born naturally as the rest of the nations of the world, nor does it exist in a natural manner as do the rest of the nations of this world.
Torah, the Divine constitution, was given to Am Yisrael in a non-natural – supernatural – manner too. This includes the Written and the Oral Torah, both of which are eternal and not subject to transfer, change, amendment, or annulment.
All of planet earth, as all of the universe, belongs to Hashem, and Hashem promised the Land of Israel to the Nation of Israel, as per the Torah. And just as the Torah is not limited in time, neither is this promise. In fact, just as the Torah pre-dates creation, so too Hashem’s promise of Eretz Yisrael predates Am Yisrael’s becoming a nation. So, on the one hand, issues of indigenousness have a hard time with supernatural entities that pre-date time and space and planet earth.
On the other hand, our Forefathers are – with all due respect – local-yokels, and some even sabras. Avraham Avinu was originally from Ur Kasdim, which today is Al-Muqayyar, Iraq (near the city of Nasiriyah, south of Bagdad and of the Tigris River on its eastern bank). So, Abraham was Iraqi. Later he moved to Charan, which today is Urfa, Turkey. And then he did make aliya to Aretz.
Isaac and Jacob were sabras – so there’s the yes part of the answer. Moses, though, was born in Egypt and never even set foot in Aretz, yet he is promised over and over by Hashem that the nation he leads will enter and inherit Eretz Yisrael. Parenthetically, the Quran states and acknowledges this too. And Kings David and Solomon were both sabras, though part Jordanian (in modern terms), since Ruth (King David’s great-grandmother and King Solomon’s great-great-grandmother) was a Moabite.
The term “indigenous” applies to all physical aspects of Creation – what is ‘naturally belonging’. And that’s the crunch: Am Yisrael is anything but natural. Our function, existence, survival, and prosperity are not natural, but supernatural. Our claim and right to Eretz Yisrael are also supernatural, based on God’s supernatural Torah – as in, and very literally, ‘Because God said so!’ Thus “indigenous” does not apply.
Indigenous issue, RIP!